LET Reviewer: Professional Education Handout

PROF. ED. HANDOUT

PART 1: KOUNIN'S MGT MODEL (1970)

stimulus boundedness -- teacher's attention interrupted by extrateneous stimulus
Thrust -- teacher interrupts students engaged in activities w/o considering whether the student is ready or not.
Dangels -- teacher interrupts activity of student and return to it again.
Truncations -- teacher does not return to current act. after being interrupted.
Overdwelling -- teacher focuses on a certian topic that will lead to too much time consupmtion, the lesson will slow down.
Fragmentation -- chunks of lesson for students to understand his/her lesson effectively or breakibg down of act. to cause too much time.
Flip Flop -- teacher changes its activity from current activity to new one and vice versa whenever he/she changes his/her mind.


PART 2 :

THEORIES AND THEIR PROPONENTS
Wilhelm Woundt = german psycologist "founder of modern psychology.
Titchener = structuralism psychology
William james, G. Stanley Hall, James M. Cattell.... these three promote "functionalism psychology
Charles darwin = theories to mental characteristics as human think, feel & behave(" evolutionary psychology")
Herman Ebbinghaus = associationism psychology
Edwin Guthrie = (stimulus and response ) :; temporal conguity
Edward Lee Thorndike = "satisfaction" "the law of effect".
Ivan Pavlov = involuntary behavior
Max Wertheimer = gestalt psychology
Otto Loewi = discovered "acetylchloline" respobsible in stimulation of muscles
Ulf von Euler discovered "norepinephrine" bringing our nervous system into "high alert"
Arvid Carlsson discovered "dopamine" the reward mechanisms in the brain
Jean Piaget -- cognitive dev't , info processing , dynamic interrelation.
Sigmund Freud -- psychosexual , psychoanalytic
Erik Erickson -- psychosocial
Lawrence Kohlberg -- moral dev't,
Burrhus Frederic Skinner – operant cond
Ivan Pavlov -- classical cond.
Edward Lee Thorndike -- connectionism
Albert Bandura -- social learning, neo - behaviorism
Robert Gagne -- sequence of instruction
Abraham Maslow -- hierarchy of needs , motivation theory
William Kohler -- insight learning
Robert Havighurst -- devt task theory
Benjamin Bloom -- bloom's cognitive taxonomy
Simpsons / Anita Harrow -- psychomotor domain
David Krathwohl -- affective domain
Jerome Bruner -- constructivist, spiral curr, instrumental conceptualism
Lev Vygotsky -- socio-cultural theory of cognitive devt , linguistic theory, Scaffolding
Edgar Dale -- cone of exp. (20% remember) kohler,koffka, weirtheimer -- gestalt psychology
John Locke -- tabularasa , empiricism
Howard Gardner -- multiple int.
Noam Chomsky -- language acquisition theory , fr of linguistic, nativism
David Ausubel -- meaningful learning, graphic organizer, assumption Charles Cooley -- looking glass self theory
John Flavel -- metacognition
Sandra Bem -- gender schema theory
Elliot Turriel -- social domain theory
Robert Sternberg -- triachic theory of int.
Johm Watson -- behaviorial theory
Maria Montessory -- transfer of learning, kinder garten preparation of children.
Edward Tolman -- purposive behaviorism and goal oriented
Edward Torrance -- creative problem solving
Bernard Weiner -- attribution theory
Daniel Goleman/coleman? -- emotional intelligence
Wolfgang Ratke -- used vernacular for approaching the class.
mencius -- idealistic wing of confucianism
hzun tzu -- realistic wing of confusianism
taoism -- lao tzu
Herbart spencer -- moral devt
Pestallozi -- symmetrical and harmonious devt of child
John Jacques Rosseau -- nature of child Arnold Gesell - maturation theory
John Dewey - Learning by doing
David Froebel - Father of kinder garten John Bowly - Attainment Theory
Edward Boro - Six Thinking Hats Theory
Auguste Comte - Father of Sociology
Carlos Linnaeus - Father of modern taxonomy.
John Amos Comencius - Fr. of modern education.
Erasmus Desiderius - Fr. of humanism/ social humanism William Kilpatrick - Project method.









PART 3:

IDEALISM – Plato
REALISM -- Aristotle
EMPIRICISM -- Locke
PRAGMATISM -- Dewey
EXISTENTIALISM – Hege
PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS -- Moore
ESSENTIALISM -- Bagley
PERENNIALISM -- Hutchins
PROGRESSIVISM -- Dewey
RECONSTRUCTIONALISM -- Brameld
BEHAVIORISM -- Skinner or Watson
STRUCTURALISM -- Helmholts or Wundt
FUNCTIONALISM -- James,Nugell, or Carr
PURPOSIVISM -- Hormic


PART 4 - ISM


NATURALISM -- only nature exist, nature is better than civilization (NATURALESA ng isang BAGAY)
IDEALISM -- spiritual, values, moral, Socratic method
REALISM -- natural world, values are natural and absolute, reality exist undeceived  PRAGMATISM/EXPERIMENTALISM -- practical, problem solving research, knowledge is what works, values are related, truth is warranted assertion.
ESSENTIALISM -- 3r's (4r's ngayon), achievement test, certain knowledge & skills are essential for rational being.  PROGRESSIVISM -- process of development, higher level of knowledge, the child's need and interest are relevant to curriculum.
EXISTENTIALISM -- knowledge is subjective, man shapes his being as he lives, we are what we do, deciding precedes knowing.
PERENNIALISM -- education that last for century, universalist, knowledge is eternally valid.
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIVISM -- for better society, community based learning
RECONSTRUCTUONALISM -- the school should help rebuild the social order thus social change.
BEHAVIORISM -- learning is change in behavior, S-R relationship
EMPIRICISM -- knowledge comes thru senses, 5 senses (observatory learning)
STRUCTURALISM -- complex mental exp. such as image, feeling and sensation
FUNCTIONALISM -- focus to motivation, thinking & learning.
PURPOSIVISM -- individual hormones are responsible for the motive to strive towards fulfillment of his/her objective.
PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS -- reality is what verifiable, truth corresponds to reality, usage determines meaning

PART 5: REPUBLIC ACTS

9155 - Governance of basic educ. act of 2001
6728 - GASTPE
7722 - creating CHED
7784 - " " of center of excellence
7796 - creating TESDA
6655 - Free public secondary act of 1988
4090 - creating a state scholarship council to integrate, systematize, administer and implement all program scholarships and appropriating funds.
5447 - creation of a special educ. fund act enacted in 1968
                      - organization and extension of classes
                      - adding classroom to remote areas, barrios and provincial schools
6139 - regulated the secretarian schools/private school in charging higher tuition fee
7687 - science and technology scholarship act of 1994
7743 - establishment of city and municipal libraries.
8292 - higher educ. modernization act of 1997
6850 - an act to grant Civil Service eligibility under certain conditions to Gov. employees appointed under provisional or temporary status who rendered 7 years of efficient service
8545 - amending RA 7628 Expanded GASTPE Act
8525 - Adopt a school program
8491 - Flag and Heraldic code of the Ph.
7797 - lengthen the school program. to 200 days and not more than 220 days
8190 - act of granting priority to residents of the barangay where school is located in the appointment and assignment of school.
6972 - act of establishing DAY CARE CENTER FOR EVERY BRGY.
7624 - integrating of drug prevention and control in the intermediate & secondary curricula and indigenous learning system
7743 - act providing libraries and reading centers throughout the Ph.
7877 - anti-sexual harassment act of 1995
9163 - NSTP of 2001
6193 - regulation of tuition fees of private educ. institution
10627 - anti-bullying act of 2013
10533 - enhance basic educ. act of 2013 (K-12 PROGRAM)
9485 - anti-red tape act
Executive Order (E.O.) 66 - rule of cancellation of classes due to typhoon, flooding and other calamities.






PART 6 :

Philosophers Related to Learners Development
SIGMUND FREUD - "the mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk above water.
COMPONENTS OF PERSONALITY
ID - pleasure center
EGO - reality center
SUPER EGO - conscience / judgment center. PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEV'T
ORAL - thumb sucking, biting
ANAL - toilet training, control of their bowel. PHALLIC - sexual interest, genital stimulation. LATENCY - sexual urges & interest were temporary
GENITAL - adult sexual interest and activities come to dominate.
Odipus complex - son vs father towards mother/wife feelings . (excessive attachment)(Phallic stage)
Electra complex - daugther vs mother towards father/husband feelings. (excessive attachment)(Phallic stage) Personality Dynamics
LIFE INSTINCT DEATH INSTINCT
ERIK ERICKSON - "healthy children will not fear in their elders have integrity enough to fear of death. PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES of DEVT
CRISIS - a person goes through
MALADAPTATION - result from failure to effectivity resolve the problem
MALIGNACY - "
VIRTUE - emerges when balance & resolution of crisis attained. PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY STAGES
Stage: Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)
Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Important Events: Toilet Training
Outcome: Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
Stage: Preschool (3 to 5 years)
Basic Conflict: Initiative vs. Guilt
Important Events: Exploration
Outcome: Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt. Stage: School Age (6 to 11 years)
Basic Conflict: Industry vs. Inferiority
Important Events: School
Outcome: Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
Stage: Adolescence (12 to 18 years)
Basic Conflict: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Important Events: Social Relationships
Outcome: Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Stage: Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs. Isolation Important Events: Relationships
Outcome: Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong
relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Stage: Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)
Basic Conflict: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Important Events: Work and Parenthood
Outcome: Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
Stage: Maturity(65 to death)
Basic Conflict: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Important Events: Reflection on life
Outcome: Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.

LEV VYGOTSKY - "the teacher must orient his work not on yesterday's devt in the childs but on tomorrow's. SCAFFOLDING - is the systematic manner of providing assistance of the learners to effectively acquire skills. MKO(More Knowledge Others) - higher level of performance.

JEAN PIAGET - " the school should be creating men & women who are capable of doing new things not simply repeating what other generation have done.

STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVT.
SENSORY MOTOR (BIRTH - 2y/o) - infants knowledge.
PRE-OPERATIONAL ( 2-7y/o) - pretend to play but still struggle with logic, mental symbols interest. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL (7-11) - think logically, hypothetically and concepts, solve problems
FORMAL OPERATIONAL (11-UP) - deductive reasoning and understanding of abstract ideas, think symbolically.

LAWRENCE KOHLBERG - "right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights and standards that have been critically examined & agreed upon by the whole society.
LEVELS OF MORAL DEVT.
PRE-CONVENTIONAL - obedience & punishment (consequences) , individualism & exchange
CONVENTIONAL --interpersonal relationship, maintain social order.
POST-CONVENTIONAL - social contract and individual rights , universal principles, set of values and beliefs.



URIE BROFENBRENNER - ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM THEORY
MICROSYSTEM - surroundings of individual: family, friends, neighborhood
MESOSYSTEM - connections between context, school experiences to church experience.
EXOSYSTEM - includes other people and places that the child herself may not interact with often herself but that still have a large effect on her.
PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY STAGES
Stage: Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)
Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Important Events: Toilet Training
Outcome: Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
Stage: Preschool (3 to 5 years)
Basic Conflict: Initiative vs. Guilt
Important Events: Exploration
Outcome: Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt. Stage: School Age (6 to 11 years)
Basic Conflict: Industry vs. Inferiority
Important Events: School
Outcome: Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
Stage: Adolescence (12 to 18 years)
Basic Conflict: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Important Events: Social Relationships
Outcome: Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Stage: Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs. Isolation Important Events: Relationships
Outcome: Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to st rong
relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Stage: Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)
Basic Conflict: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Important Events: Work and Parenthood
Outcome: Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
Stage: Maturity(65 to death)
Basic Conflict: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Important Events: Reflection on life
Outcome: Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to
feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.

LEV VYGOTSKY - "the teacher must orient his work not on yesterday's dev’t in the child’s but on tomorrows. SCAFFOLDING - is the systematic manner of providing assistance of the learners to effectively acquire skills. MKO (More Knowledge Others) - higher level of performance.

JEAN PIAGET - " the school should be creating men & women who are capable of doing new things not simply repeating what other generation have done.

STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVT.
SENSORY MOTOR (BIRTH - 2y/o) - infants knowledge.
PRE-OPERATIONAL ( 2-7y/o) - pretend to play but still struggle with logic, mental symbols interest. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL (7-11) - think logically, hypothetically and concepts, solve problems
FORMAL OPERATIONAL (11-UP) - deductive reasoning and understanding of abstract ideas, think symbolically.

LAWRENCE KOHLBERG - "right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights and standards that have been critically examined & agreed upon by the whole society.
LEVELS OF MORAL DEVT.
PRE-CONVENTIONAL - obidience & punishment (consequences) , individualism & exchange
CONVENTIONAL --interpersonal relationship, maintain social order.
POST-CONVENTIONAL - social contract and individual rights , universal principles, set of values and beliefs.

URIE BROFENBRENNER - ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM THEORY
MICROSYSTEM - surroundings of individual: family, friends, neighborhood
MESOSYSTEM - connections between context, school experiences to church experience.
EXOSYSTEM - includes other people and places that the child herself may not interact with often herself but that still have a large effect on her.
MACROSYSTEM - which is the largest and most remote set of people and places and things to a child but which still has a great influence over the child.

ALBERT BANDURA - SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
: environment affects child's personality : learninh occurs by simply observing people, people learned from what they see and the consequences of what they did






PART 7

FOUR PILLARS OF LEARNING
LEANING TO KNOW - focuses on combining broad gen. knowledge and basic educ. with the opportunity to work on a small number of subjects in the light of rapid changes brought about by scientific progress ang new forms of economic and social activity.
1. Learning how to learn and to discover, as to benefit from ongoing educational opportunities continuously arising throughout life.
2. Developing the faculties of memory, imagination, reasoning and problem solving.
3. Understanding about one's environment.
4. Communicating with others.

LEARNING TO DO - emphasizes on the learning of skills necessary to practice a profession or trade.
1. applying in practice what has been learned.
2. developing vocational / occupational and technical skills
3. developing social skills in building meaningful interpersonal relationships.
4. developing competence, social behavior, aptitude for teamwork
5. enhancing the ability to communicate and work with others
6. managing and resolving conflicts.

LEARNING TO BE - prioritizes the development of the human potential to the fullest.
1. tapping the talents hidden with individual.
2. developing personal commitment and responsibility for the common good.

LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER - emphasizes understanding of others, their history, tradition and cultures, and also living and interacting peacefully together.
1. appreciating diversity of human race
2. being receptive to others and encounter others through dialogue and debate.
3. caring about others
4. working toward common objectives in cooperative undertakings.
5. managing and resolving conflicts.









PART 8: COGNITIVE PERSPECTVE : GESTALT PRINCIPLE

German word means "whole, form, pattern or configuration" the focus of this theory is on Perception and how people assign meaning to visual stimuli "The whole is more than the sum of all parts"
LAW OF PROXIMITY - elements that are closer together be percieved as a coherent object. LAW OF SIMILARITY - similar will perceived as part of the same form.
LAW OF CLOSURE - ignoring gaps in the figure.
LAW OF CONTINUATION - patterns establish an impled direction, people tend a good continous line. LAW OF PRAGNANZ - stimulus will be organize into a good figure as possible.
LAW OF FIGURE/GROUND - we tend to pay attention and perceived things in the foreground first. INSIGHT LEARNING - Gestalt adheres to the idea of learning takes place by discovery.

PART 9

Ripple Effect - spreading effect of series of consequences caused by single action or event.
Hawthorne Effect - type of reactivity effect in which individuals improve an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.
Halo Effect - cognitive bias which an observer overall impression of a person, influences the observers feeling and thoughts about the entity's character or property
Pygmalion Effect - Shows the teacher's expectation (self-fulfillment)
Golem Effect - low expectation leads to decrease in performance.
REINFORCEMENTS
Positive - presence of stimulus Negative - absence of stimulus
Escape - removes stimulus
Avoidance - prevents stimulus
Reinforcement - increase of behavior
Punishment - weakens response.


Source: Arlene Grace Urmin

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